1987: James R. Bradshaw - A Correct Leadership Style--An Eternal Principle

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1987: James R. Bradshaw - A Correct Leadership Style--An Eternal Principle

J BradshawThe first member of the business faculty selected as a McKay lecturer, James R. Bradshaw treated leadership principles in the twenty-fifth lecture in the series, delivered in 1987. Part of the faculty of Church College of Hawaii and Brigham Young University-Hawaii since 1969, Bradshaw received his B.S. in 1968 from the College of Southern Utah, his M.S. in 1969 from Utah State University, and his Ed.D. in 1974 from Brigham Young University, specializing in curriculum. He interrupted his education to serve three years (1961-1964) with the Army Intelligence Corps. Aside from his involvement with local and regional business organization, including the Hawaii Business Education Association, of which he is a past president, Bradshaw has also given notable Church service as branch president, district president, bishop, high councilor, temple sealer, and stake president's counselor at the time of his lecture. Widely travelled in Asia and the South Pacific and frequently invited to address international conferences, he completed nearly a decade as Chair of the Division of Business in 1984. Bradshaw and his wife Jeanie have four children: Scott, Lisa, Jonathan, and Mibi.

Distinguished guests, former David O. McKay lecturers, fellow faculty members, President Wade, Vice-President Britsch, Associate Vice-President Puckett, family, friends, and last but not least you students from around the world, good morning and Aloha.

It is indeed a very great honor for me to stand here in this position as has been the occasion by some who are present today and by others totaling twenty-five (25), including my presentation today. It is fitting that we gather here to first of all remember and to honor the late President, Prophet, seer and revelator: David O. McKay. For myself to have been selected one year ago to prepare for this presentation this day has been a very humbling experience and needless to say not an easy one to have a year, which seems so much time yet not such a great amount of time, to try and say something that will carry on the tradition that has been established by the others on twenty-four (24) previous occasions. That I might be able to add a small something to the occasion I earnestly seek an interest in your faith and prayers and also the help of our Heavenly Father that the things I have prepared might be presented to you in such a way that you will gain something to help you appreciate the occasion that we have met here for.

The charge I was given by the Faculty Advisory Committee one year ago was as follows:

The David O. McKay series, sponsored by [the Brigham Young University--Hawaii Campus Faculty], is designed to afford a. . . member of the faculty the opportunity to present recently gained insights in his[/her] field of study and their reflection on the Gospel.

The intellectual courage and vigor with which the designated faculty member approaches his[/her] subject matter extends a degree of respect to the memory of Pres. David O. McKay under whose inspired leadership this institution came into being.1

With that charge, I have taken a very serious reflection upon what it is that I should present here today. I have also felt the seriousness of this assignment since I find that this is the first time in the history of the David O. McKay lectures that a member of the business faculty has had this opportunity. Thus I feel an added responsibility to represent well my fellow colleagues of the Business Division. As I began last year I re-read many of the works of Pres. McKay for I felt that since this presentation was in honor of him that I should once again feel of the things that he felt and to try and cover the things that he would also have me cover. I have once again covered the material in The Founding and Early Development of the Church College of Hawaii (1972) by Reuben D. Law, I have reviewed many of Pres. McKay's books and his lectures to gain new insight into his teachings. I have met a number of times with our own Pres. D. Arthur Haycock who had served with Pres. McKay and who was personally present at the founding of this institution and had firsthand knowledge of many of the events that we only have the opportunity of reading about. I am extremely grateful to the Committee for giving me this opportunity to become better acquainted with many of the things that makes this institution a great place to teach and work at.

I might also share with you that as I received this assignment a year ago, I jokingly was reminded that it had taken so long for a member of our Division to receive this assignment because "can anything good come out of Business?"

I was queried as to what I might be able to say that would be appropriate for this occasion and how would I mingle business and the gospel together?

But the more I began to read and research the more I realized that the correct principles of leadership and management and/or dealing with human beings are the same in business, in Church leadership, in family relationships and in personal relationships as well as in the ultimate relationship with our Heavenly Father. I have thus entitled my presentation today, "A Correct Leadership Style--An Eternal Principle." I have found and will present to you today information that to my satisfaction has shown that good leadership styles, good management styles, good motivational techniques, good human relationships are the same whether in business or in Church leadership positions. One does not need to change hats so to speak when he/she moves from a professional position to the position he or she holds in the Church. I will also share with you today some of the personal statements from some of our students that have gone forth as Pres. McKay prophesied and are contributing to "peace internationally" (3).2 I have been pleasantly amazed to find that some have only been away from here a few short years and yet are holding very responsible positions in Church and in major corporations.

My research during the past number of years has centered around motivation and why people do the things they do and are there differences between different nationalities. Not only through the research that I have been involved in but also by meeting with and listening to other researchers from around the world I have been able to gather much information regarding human desires, motivation, and ways to lead people. People are very much concerned about leadership style from conferences in Mainland China in 1984, to International Business Seminars in Singapore, to the Pan-Pacific Conference in Seoul, Korea, to the World Productivity Congress in 1986 in Jakarta, Indonesia; thousands of participants when combined together have all discussed ways in which leadership or management style should be or has been applied. Leadership style has much to do with the way people behave in any organization; thus the correct style is very important.

Mr. J. C. Penney himself, the founder of the J. C. Penney stores that has grown to such a large corporation today, had one simple philosophy of dealing with employee and customer and that was The Golden Rule (151): "do unto others as you would have them do unto you." Now coming from a businessman who was very well off, I don't find that philosophy too difficult to accept. Next I look at our own Doctrine and Covenants 121: 41-43:

No power or influence can or ought to be maintained by virtue of the priesthood, only by persuasion, by long-suffering, by gentleness and meekness, and by love unfeigned;

By kindness, and pure knowledge, which shall greatly enlarge the soul without hypocrisy, and without guile--

Reproving betimes with sharpness, when moved upon by the Holy Ghost: and then showing forth afterwards an increase of love toward him whom thou hast reproved, lest he esteem thee to be his enemy.

The Prophet Joseph Smith stated, "I teach them correct principles, and they govern themselves" (qtd. in Taylor 339). In current Japanese management style with quality circles we find that many of these concepts allow or encourage workers to meet together to set their own standards and goals, quotas, etc. We find in fact that companies which are the most successful do not set out with profit as their prime objective, but are always people-oriented and are interested in providing a service to mankind. Peters and Waterman in their book, In Search of Excellence (1972), where they were attempting to see if there were any U.S. companies that were doing things right when so many companies in the U. S. were running into financial problems came to the conclusion that some companies were doing things right and the ones they mentioned all seem to have a central theme of being people-oriented (14-15). This philosophy also adheres to our teachings in the LDS Church that we should be concerned about the "one" through our home teaching and visiting teaching programs and through the teachings of the "lost sheep" we [learn] from early childhood that everyone is important in the sight of our Heavenly Father.

One of the greatest lessons on management that one can learn is from the story of Moses in the Old Testament and the lesson taught to him by his father-in-law Jethro about delegation (Ex. 18: 13-27).

We might ask why all of this concern about leadership and management style anyway? Why worry about it especially if one is not a "Business Major" or if one is not planning to ever get into management? Probably the biggest majority of us, somewhere, sometime will be in position where we will need to be leaders, managers, etc., especially in our own family, which is one of the most important places where we can practice good management and leadership principles. The Priesthood manual for 1986 indicates some very important principles that we can consider:

President Kimball said that some 'leaders have sought to be so omnicompetent that they. . . tried to do everything themselves, which produces little growth in others. . . . If we brush other people aside in order to see a task done more quickly and effectively, the task may get done all right, but without the growth and development in followers that is so important.' (Put 175)

It seems that we as faculty, staff, administrators, all who come in contact with our students have a very great responsibility then to teach proper principles and be willing to take the time to give our students a chance to learn what they need to know without being harsh, insensitive and rude, just to get the job done correctly.

From the Prophet Joseph Smith, we learn [that] the way to get along in any important matter is to gather unto yourselves wise men, experienced and aged men, to assist in council in all times of trouble. "I teach them correct principles, and they govern themselves" (qtd. in Taylor 339).

President David O. McKay in Law's book, The Founding and Early Development of the Church College of Hawaii, states:

Now that tells us what this school is being built for, the purpose for which it is being built: First, the things pertaining to God and His kingdom, a testimony of the existence of Deity, know that He lives and that He is our Father, the Father of all mankind and ruler of brothers; what that means toward peace, establishing peace in all the world. Secondly, that those who are obeying those principles will develop manhood, character, and make noble men and women. The world needs them. One man said the world needs men who cannot be bought or sold, men who will scorn to violate truth, genuine gold. That is what this school is going to produce. More that, they will be leaders. Not leaders only on this island, but everywhere. All the world is hungering for them and best of all, the world is recognizing them. (qtd. in Law 66-67)

President McKay continued by stating:

and whoever teaches here in this school, I'll put it this way: No man or woman should teach in this college who doesn't have in his or her heart an assurance, not a mere belief, an assurance, that God has had his hand over this entire valley, that that dedication offered years ago was inspired, that this land is a choice land. . . .

You mark that word, and from this school, I'll tell you, will go men and women whose influence will be felt for good towards the establishment of peace internationally [Italics added]. (qtd. in Law 67)

Another important statement by President McKay is

Always bear in mind these two things as you proceed with this college: 1. The students must be imbued with the fact and be led to feel that the most important thing in the world is the Gospel, and that observance of its principles in their lives brings happiness and joy in this life and further joy, progress and exaltation in the life hereafter; 2. The college must be fully creditable in all its instruction and activities. (qtd. in Law 79-80)

Sterling W. Sill in his book on leadership also explains some very important aspects of leadership skills:

God is the author of human nature, and human beings also behave according to a pattern which we can learn to discover in advance. . . . Business [teaches us or] shows us how to deal agreeably with each other. . . .

Then we have the great undertaking which we call human leadership. Leadership is a science, and it is also an art. It is certainly the most important enterprise ever undertaken. It is also the one supremely difficult thing to develop. . . . [I]t takes a human being to be a leader, and great leadership requires a human being at his best.

Each person must develop his own leadership. Leadership cannot be bought. It cannot be conferred. It cannot be inherited. It knows no divine right. It cannot be passed on by any process of succession. It is always stamped with the label, 'Not Transferable.' It is acquired only by the personal mastery of each individual aspirant. Once this ability is acquired, one may then touch the keys regulating human behavior and help to bring about the most important responses in human beings. (14-15)

Sill further explains some of the aspects that the Savior taught about leadership:

Jesus tried to teach us some of these laws of leadership, most of which we have not made much of an attempt to master. He gave an almost all-powerful law of success by which we may bring about in others almost any response we desire. This law is made up of just fifteen words. Some have called it the Golden Rule; This law says, 'Whatsoever ye would that men should do unto you, do ye even so unto them.' (15)

I have indicated earlier that this was the simple rule that J. C. Penney used. Sill continues by explaining the power leadership in the proper form can have:

But however 'effective leadership' may be defined, it is clearly the greatest power in the world. By its use, one man can, if he will, change the morale of a whole community. To be a leader is more than just to be a good man. Leadership is the ability to make goodness operate in the lives of others. . . . One of the best sources for our learning is to study the lives of great leaders. Some of these leaders are written about in the scriptures; some work contemporaneously with us in the Church; many great leaders are in other fields. But the principles of leadership success are very similar no matter where we find them, and they may be selected and adapted and used by us in the work of the Lord. (21-22)

Again we should underline the fact that the principles of leadership are similar no matter where we find them.

Some of the important subheadings of leadership have to do with 'selection,' 'training" and 'discipline.' The great businesses of the world are annually spending millions of dollars in aptitude testing, personal interviewing and other means of selecting the right person for the right job. . . . After 'selection' comes 'training.' A trained man is always more effective than an untrained man. (Sill 62)

Thus we can see the importance of effective training while you students are here studying at BYU-HC. Sill concludes by stating,

A good leader must be expert in human engineering, inasmuch as the most important problems in the world are human problems. . . .

Executive ability is the most valuable known ability. Workers always do better with a good leader. It has been proven many times that a sales force under an ordinary leader will sell only a fraction of the goods that can be sold by the same sales force under a leader who can maintain high morale, promote a sense of responsibility, give effective training, and provide stimulating supervision and motivation. . . . (88)

There are people who develop to a high degree this powerful sense of voluntary determination to do their duty. This quality is far more than just initiative. It is a combination of enterprise and conscience at its best. These two great traits join hands to form a wonderful internal spiritual power . . . .

This quality attains its highest rank among the traits of leadership. It was one of the important characteristics that distinguished the life of Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln had lots of 'have to.' He said, 'I am not bound to win but I am bound to be true. I am not bound to succeed, but I am bound to live by the best light that I have. I will stand with anybody that stands right and I will part from anybody when he goes wrong.' It was the 'Have to' in Lincoln that kept him going against great odds until the cause was finally won. . . .

This quality reached its highest denomination in the Master himself, who took it with him to the cross. He didn't have to, but he did. (118-119)

As faculty we need to instill the "have to" characteristic in our students as Sill has so well clarified.

Hugh Nibley, known to many on this campus as a very capable scholar, describes the differences between a leader and a manager and we of course should be working towards training leaders:

Leaders are movers and shakers, original, inventive, unpredictable, imaginative, full of surprises that discomfit the enemy in war and the main office in peace. Managers, on the other hand, are safe, conservative, predictable, conforming organizational men and team players, dedicated to the establishment.

The leader, for example, has a passion for equality. . . . For the manager, on the other hand, the idea of equality is repugnant and indeed counterproductive. (16-17)

History abounds in dramatic confrontations between managers and leaders, but none is more stirring than the epic story of the collision between Moroni and Amalickiah, the one the most charismatic leader, the other the most skillful manager, in the Book of Mormon. .

Above all, Moroni was the charismatic leader, personally going about to rally the people, who came running together spontaneously to his 'Title of Liberty,' the banner of the poor and downtrodden of Israel (Alma 46: 12, 19-21). . . .

Amalickiah, on the other hand, made war the cornerstone of his policy and power, using a systematic and carefully planned communications system of towers and trained speakers to stir up the people to fight for their 'rights,' meaning Amalickiah's career.

Such was the management that Moroni opposed. By all means, let us take Captain Moroni for our model and never forget what he fought for--the poor, outcast and despised; and what he fought against--pride, power,wealth and ambition; or how he fought--as the generous considerate and magnanimous foe, a leader in every sense. . . . The manager knows the price of everything and the value of nothing, because for him the value is the price. (45-46)

We need to ask ourselves: What kind of leadership do we provide at home, in the Church, and on the job? Do we understand the principles of effective, righteous leadership? Who is our model of perfect leadership? Let me give you a few more examples:

President N. Eldon Tanner wrote: 'In order to lead as Jesus led, we are faced with many challenges. One of the first steps in meeting these challenges is to realize that Christ is a model of correct leadership; and as the scriptures record his life and his teachings, they become case studies of divine leadership.' (qtd. in Put 173).

"President Spencer W. Kimball taught us to be successful leaders by following the Savior's example" (Put 173):

The Savior's leadership was selfless. He put himself and his own needs second and ministered to others beyond the call of duty, tirelessly, lovingly, effectively. So many of the problems in the world today spring from selfishness and self-centeredness. (6)

Again we need to ask: "Can a leader who is selfishly motivated be as effective ultimately as one which is motivated by love of others and a desire to serve them?" (Put 173).

"Elder Ezra Taft Benson taught an important principle of leadership when he said: 'In delegating, Jesus did not make the assignment sound easy but he made it sound exciting and challenging' (Put 174).

President Kimball stated, "Because Jesus loved his followers, he was able to level with them, to be candid and forthright with them" (5). "Every great leader needs to turn to the perfect example of leadership to learn how to lead and govern and influence others. 'Therefore turn thou to God,' says the scripture, 'keep mercy and judgment, and wait on thy God continually' (Hosea 12: 6)" (Put 176).

To be a. . . leader, then, one must do the following:

First, look to our Savior as the perfect leadership example.

Second, accept the role of teacher and servant.

Third, search the scriptures for correct principles.

Fourth, pray for guidance, listen, and respond.

Fifth, help the individual to develop self-government.

Sixth, hold individuals accountable for their work.

Seventh, express adequate appreciation.

Eighth, set a personal example consistent with that which he teaches.

Ninth, listen to the voice of the President of the Church, who is a prophet of God, and follow his counsel and example. (Tanner 17)

In studying attributes of the "Excellent Companies," Peters and Waterman listed eight factors, some of the key ones were

  1. A bias for action, for getting on with it. . . .
  2. [Being] close to the customer. . . .
  3. Autonomy and entrepreneurship. . . .
  4. Productivity through people. The excellent companies treat rank and file as the root source of quality and productivity gain. . . .
  5. [Have a] simple form [of management structure, a] lean staff. (13-15)

Most of these eight attributes are not startling. Some, if not most, are 'motherhoods.' But as Ren* McPherson says, 'Almost everybody agrees, "people are our most important asset." Yet almost none really lives it.' The excellent companies live their commitment to people, as they also do their preference for action--any action. . . .

We should note that not all eight attributes were present or conspicuous to the same degree in all of the excellent companies we studied. But in every case at least a preponderance of the eight was clearly visible, quite distinctive. We believe, moreover, that the eight are conspicuously absent in most large companies today. Or if they are not absent, they are so well disguised you'd hardly notice them, let alone pick them out as distinguishing traits. Far too many managers have lost sight of the basics, in our opinion: quick action, service to customers, practical innovation, and the fact that you can't get any of these without virtually everyone's commitment. (16-17)

The lesson that the excellent companies have to teach is that there is no reason why we can't design systems that continually reinforce this notion; most of their people are made to feel that they are winners.

In the not-so-excellent companies, the reverse is true. While IBM explicitly manages to ensure that 70-80 percent of its salespeople meet quotas, another company (an IBM competitor in part of its product line) works it so that only 40 percent of the sales force meets it quotas during a typical year. With this approach, at least 60 percent the salespeople think of themselves as losers.

Label a man a loser and he'll start acting like one.

Warren Bennis, in The Unconscious Conspiracy: Why Leaders Can't Lead (1976), finds ample reason to agree:

In a study of school teachers, it turned out that when they held high expectations of their students, that alone was enough to cause an increase of 25 points in the students' IQ scores. (qtd. in Peters and Waterman 59)

Skinner and others take special note of the asymmetry between positive and negative reinforcement (essentially the threat of sanctions). In short, negative reinforcement will produce behavioral change, but often in strange, unpredictable, and undesirable ways. Positive reinforcement causes behavioral change too, but usually in the intended direction. (qtd. in Peters and Waterman 68)

The excellent company managements, however, do take these things into account--either consciously or unconsciously. The result is better relative performance, a higher level of contribution from the "average" man. More significant, both for society and for the companies, these institutions create environments in which people can blossom, develop self-esteem, and otherwise be excited participants in the business and society as a whole. This seems very similar to what we do or should be doing at BYU-HC.

Peters and Waterman conclude:

We are beginning to perceive, however dimly, a central theme that in our minds makes the excellent companies great. On the surface of it, Theory X and Theory Y are mutually exclusive. You pick one or the other. As a leader, you are authoritarian or you are democratic. In reality, you are neither and both at the same time. Messrs. Watson (IBM), Kroc (Mcdonald's), Marriott, et al., have been pathbreakers in treating people as adults, in inducing practical. . . training and development opportunities for all, in treating all as members of the family. Mr. Watson, in fact, in carrying out his open door policy, had an unfailing weakness for the worker; his managers rarely won when a worker complaint was surfaced. On the other hand, all of these gentlemen were tough as nails. All were ruthless when their core values of service to the customer and unstinting quality were violated. They combined, then, a caring side and a tough side. Like good parents, they cared a lot--and expected a lot. To oversimplify their characteristics as predominantly 'X-ish' or 'Y-ish' is almost entirely to miss the point. (98)

Treat people as adults. Treat them as partners; treat them with dignity; treat them with respect. Treat them

--not capital spending and automation--as the primary source of productivity gains. (238)

The 'excellent" companies then give people control over their destinies; they make meaning for people. They turn the average Joe and the average Jane into winners. They let, even insist that, people stick out. They accentuate the positive.

The excellent companies have a deeply ingrained philosophy that says, in effect, "respect the individual," "make People winners," "let them stand out," "treat people as adults."

We find also through other authors that the correct managing of people is very important. Sutermeister stated in his book:

'Direct incentives will increase production 20-50% but "the ingredient I find in the excellent companies [which] has a potential that overshadows the productivity increase achievable through industrial engineering techniques [is the human aspect]. When we learn to manage people, the increased productivity will be likened to the relationship of the water wheel to nuclear energy."' Sometimes an improvement in technology is more than offset by changes for the worse on the human side of productivity, so that productivity when expected to go up actually remains the same, or increases less than predicted, or even goes down. (10-11)3

At the Honda Corporation we find that one of the most significant points about the management style of Honda is its use of team spirit. Daily meetings are held for the line employees and their supervisors in all Honda plants around the world.

Ouchi in his book Theory Z (1981) indicated the importance of human relationships:

The characteristics of the best organizations tend to bring out the best in people. Note that all of the characteristics deal with human relationships. No mention is made of technology, economic considerations, or the product. The entire focus is on human qualities--how and why people work well together. . . . In conclusion, all people are at their best when they are an essential member of an organization that challenges the human spirit, that inspires personal growth and development, that gets things done. . . . [W]hat is called for [is} investment in training employees, long-run development of working relationships, consideration for the social and emotional needs and the dignity of employees, and participation of employees in decision making. (182-184).

Peters and Waterman in their investigation of excellence in American Companies also indicated:

Sony and Matsushita's success in the United States is a vivid reminder of the likely absence of an 'Eastern Magic' underpinning Japan's astounding productivity record. . . . 'The productivity proposition is not so Japanese as it is simply human. . . loyalty, commitment through effective training, personal identification with the company's success and, most simply, the human relationship between employee and his supervisor.'. . .

Treating people--not money, machines, or minds--as the natural resource may be the key to it all. (39)

I now quote from the conclusions of a paper presented at the 5th World Productivity Congress in Jakarta last Spring:

Management style might vary from country to country and from company to company. However, regardless of that style, the most important ingredient in this mix seems to be how is the worker treated? What impact does he/she have in the company? Are their ideas taken seriously or are they asked for their opinions? Do they have a personal stake in the company? Do they reap some of the benefits through profit sharing? Is there concern for the worker in regards to fair treatment such as 'lifetime' employment? Is the worker included in some of the decision making processes? Such as through Quality Circles? or through suggestion box ideas? There certainly appears to be a 'National Spirit' that cannot be exported to others and this also can be a key part of the productivity mix, but worker treatment and input seems to exist in the excellent companies whether in Japan, Korea or the U.S. or other parts of the world. Continued study in this regard can certainly help executives and managers alike to learn all that they can in the area of how 'excellent and successful companies seem to be doing it.' (Bradshaw 27-28)

What should we as faculty be doing? The immediate future is where our answers lie--not in the distant future. The decisions we make now in the next year or two will give the direction for a long time in the future.

As faculty let us not pursue the "bigness" alone or assume that being accredited by some association in our various disciplines will solve our problems and by association with these various organizations to be the answer to our problems. By so doing we might lose the specialness to deal with individual students on an individual basis.

There must be harmony between striving for what we would like to be and what we have the ability to be. In our "pursuit of excellence" (Orlick), let us remember that it is the concern for the "one," for the individual, that appears to make the excellent companies excellent, as quoted earlier by Peters and Waterman in their search for "excellence." Our variety and number of differences, though sometimes a challenge on the one hand, are also the same ingredients that make us unique. As attested to by numbers of our graduates who have gone forth I have written to a sample number and recently received some comments that I will share with you. As we look at how they have "gone forth" it seems in the eyes of the world and by their various Church callings that they are serving in leadership capacities and seem to have been well prepared:

  1. S. Josiah Chan, Hong Kong, B.S., Accounting, BYUH, 1979; M.B.A, Michigan State, 1980; currently Assistant Vice-President, Public Finance Department, Sanwa Bank, LTD, New York.
  2. Roy Thong, Singapore, B.S., Business Management, BYUH, 1981; MBA, Thunderbird; currently Real Estate manager for PBO, Singapore, a Branch President in the Church and also entering into private investments. He indicates:

My successful mixing and living among different cultures has helped me to work well with the international clientele that now comes with my job and investment ventures.

The Church experience helped me to gain particularly in leadership style and [apply] the influence for good [in] the way I treat my subordinates at work in my job. It has also better prepared me to serve as a Branch President. The secret is love.

The atmosphere that ties in academics with the Supreme Being has provided me the conversion to know that there is a Supreme Being and that everything I do must contribute to my relationship with our Heavenly Father, otherwise all is in vain.4

3. Kerry Wong, Hong Kong, B.S., Business, BYUH, 1981; MBA, BYU- Provo, 1982; currently a Bishop in the Church and also an Assistant Manager, Citicorp, a financial corporation.

4. Adolph B. K. Singh, Nepal, B.S., Business, BYUH, 1979; currently Stake Mission President, Carlsbad, California, also Area Supervisor, 7-Eleven Division, responsible for training International Area licensees from Asia, in charge of 8 Store Managers and 72 salespeople. He stated:

Some of the things I feel contributed to my present position are:

  • The opportunity to receive a University education through the sponsorship program. I came to BYU-H with just a few dollars and a dream, and I left with a dream fulfilled and thousands of dollars worth of education. I am grateful for this unique program.
  • The business program provided a solid foundation for some one like myself who had no business background. I felt the accounting department was exceptionally strong and the Business Administration Degree itself to be well recognized by major corporations and Universities.
  • The BYU-H program of Church and School as one entity was to my advantage for career preparation. The School provided me with academic qualifications and the Church developed my leadership and managerial qualities.
  • One other preparation I received in the area of International Business was cultural understanding. BYU-HC's large student body from diverse nations made it an excellent place to learn foreign cultures.

5. Jack K. H. Lau, Hong Kong, B.S., Business, BYUH, 1981; M.B.A., BYU-Provo, 1983; currently serving as a Bishop in the Church, Manager, Electronics section, Standard Chartered Bank, Hong Kong. He indicates:

I suppose the most valuable thing I gained from attending BYU-H is a testimony of the restored gospel. Such testimony has enabled me to serve a mission, be married in the Temple and to have a constant pursuit of excellence in whatever I do. Many of my management traits of drive, endurance, aggressiveness, long suffering, confidence, and ambition were acquired during my missionary experience. I believe BYU-H offers the excellent spiritual and academic environment which I believe no other institution in the country can offer and I have to stress that solely academic achievements are not sufficient to enable a graduate to find successes in business, Church and family settings.

I returned home in 1983 to the worst economic crises that Hong Kong had ever had due to the 1997 situation; however I received seven job offers from top companies and interestingly five of the companies wanted to recruit me because of my missionary experience. In the past three short years, I have quadrupled my initial salary, changed jobs four times and have received offers from no less than 15 companies. All of this can be attributed to the blessings of serving the Lord. [In] my present job I handle the overall marketing in several industries and the portfolio size at present is HK$ 1 billion.

Finally I would say to the students, "serve the Lord first and ye shall harvest [a] countless number of fruits later on." The Church goes hand in hand with the real business world. Being a full-time missionary is the best preparation for entering into the business world.

6. Robert W. Perriton, New Zealand, CCH, 1968; currently Principal of Church College of New Zealand and Area Director of New Zealand, Fiji, Tahiti and the Cook Islands. He said:

In the days of Church College, I left New Zealand as a very young and inexperienced boy. Arrived at your shores with a desire to gain a degree but certainly with not much direction, little understanding and requiring much guidance. It was my blessing to attend an Institution that cared, that tried to relate to its students, that showed concern. I found that the true impact of success comes from those who care for people rather than those who care for programs. Church College offered to this young boy from the South Pacific an environment where I felt secure with the Priesthood direction which gave me hope and with successes that assisted me to develop so that I could gain the necessary personal confidence in myself to go on to the next task.

Perhaps the greatest personal thing that attending Church College of Hawaii did for me was to develop my testimony. To allow me to be called to serve a 2 1/2 year mission to Taiwan. . . . I am pleased to be back in my homeland to contribute in some small way to the growth of the kingdom. It is BYU's stated goal that the youth that come from its doors will return to their homelands and then contribute.

7. Do Whan Lee, Korea, B.S., Business Management, BYUH, 1975; currently Korea Seoul Mission President, has also served as a Stake President prior to this call. [He writes:]

While attending school there, I always planned on returning to Korea to serve and help my people. While there, in the form of financial support, I was given a part-time campus job as you very well know. At the time I felt this job was a burden. The hours were long and the pay was little, so I thought. It wasn't until after I graduated that I realized what a great service had been rendered on my behalf. I am very grateful for that support. Probably the most important thing I learned at BYU-HC was Mormonism. Through experiences on campus and in the Temple my testimony was greatly strengthened. Most of my leadership positions since returning home have been Church related. The strong gospel background I received at BYU-H has helped me in all these positions.

The things I learned at BYU-H have been priceless to me and my service in Korea. As the Lord has said and as the sign in front of your campus says, 'The Glory of God is Intelligence.' I have truly learned this principle. I will be eternally grateful for the things I learned at BYU-HC.

8. Dong Hwan Kim, Korea, B.S., TIM, BYUH, 1979); M.B.A, Northeast Louisiana; currently a Stake President in Korea and also an instructor, Department of Business Management, College of Economics and Business Administration, Chongju University, Korea. [He notes:]

I am greatly indebted to the University for the excellent environment and opportunities to learn and grow. My thanks to the faculty of the Business Division and others who have helped me to realize my potential and the importance of righteous living through their personal examples. As a faculty member myself today and as a Stake President I greatly appreciate the faculty that provided me with not only a quality academic experience but for also showing me how to deal with people and how to apply various theories and principles of leadership in Church and organizational settings. Your kindness and patience for International Students who are learning English as a Second language is extremely important. Your understanding, patience and spirituality were very important. I firmly believe that the students of BYU-HC will play a very important role in helping to foster international peace as they mingle together and try to understand each other's culture and backgrounds. I think there is no other place to have such an opportunity as at BYU-HC.

As a graduate of BYU-HC I found that I was well prepared to attend graduate school and I am proud of this fine institution and hope that my own children will one day have the opportunity of having the same experiences as they attend BYU-HC.

9. Dong Hwan Park, B.S., TIM, Business, BYUH, 1978; currently Executive Assistant Manager, Rooms Division, Hyatt Regency Hotel, Seoul, Korea, responsible for approximately 350 employees. [He observes:]

If I can share with you some of the valuable teachings that I learned at BYU-H, they would be the following:

  • Honesty: In dealing with people including clients or fellow workers, I find it is best to be honest with whatever the situation is; this attitude, I think, gives people a feeling of confidence in me and my work.
  • Understanding: When people including my subordinates and fellow-workers make mistakes, I try to understand their point of view and their situation and try not to embarrass them in public; we are not perfect.
  • Respect for the individual: When I have to discipline a staff member, I call him or her into my office; when I reward them I do so in public.
  • Courage: For a mistake or poor results that are my own responsibility, I do not try to escape taking the responsibility myself.

10. Yoshikazu Yokoyama, Japan, B.S., Business Management, BYUH 1972; currently in the Stake Presidency, besides running his own very successful Dried Food Business, he is Director of Sales of Matra Datavision, a computer aided design and manufacturing system, over the Far East, including China, New Zealand and Australia.

He concludes that the opportunity of meeting with many different cultures and learning about communication and human behavior as well as organizational behavior have been very helpful in his years since leaving then CCH.

11. Hine Hakaraia, New Zealand, B.S., Office Management, Secretarial Science and Social Work, BYUH, 1985; currently Department Chairperson, Church College of New Zealand, Teacher Development Director in her ward. [She responds:]

My experience at BYU-H was over and done with far too quickly. My first pay check of 40 hours at $3.70 per hour was also a shock that I will never forget. I don't know how we managed, except that we did, I was able to graduate cum laude and we left BYU not owing a penny. I also learned to be more tolerant and patient on that campus because of the number of different cultures that I had dealings with. I went to Hawaii giving up a very wonderful job at Church College of New Zealand because I had a vision of me waking in the Resurrection with my Temple Recommend in one hand and a College Diploma in the other.

Thank you, thank you, thank you, to all the people who helped me attain my goal. The CLA Division who gave me such a hard time--there were times when you made me feel as though English, both written and spoken, was a foreign language to me. Psychology, psychology, Doctors Morris Graham and Ishmael Stagner, both psychotics in their own right, gave me so many insights into areas that were just names roaming around in my subconscious. Before I left New Zealand one of my brothers suggested that I seek psychiatric treatment because he couldn't see any reason for me to return to school and doing some of. those psychology classes, I began to wonder if perhaps he had been right. . . . My daughter Kura and I would leave home at 6:45 a.m. every morning, go to classes, work our hours and come home to crash every night. Where did I get the energy and the stupidity and the plain audacity to think that I could keep on doing this for four years? But keep on doing that I did and I didn't miss one class in the whole time I was there and since coming home I am doing pretty much the same thing. I learned all of this at BYU and every now and again I am tempted to make the appointment with the psychiatrist myself. But as Kura and I watched the Liberty weekend celebrations it made us very homesick for Hawaii. You Americans are very patriotic, very warm, and very hospitable. We love you all and hope one day to be able to return the love, the warmth and the hospitality we have received. Thank-you. Sis. Hine Hakaraia.

12. Peter Kaanapu, Hawaii, B.S., Business Management BYUH, 1978. [He remarks:]

Permit me to reminisce somewhat about the ensuing eight years since Hutia and I left the BYU-H campus. We went directly to BYU Provo to begin my Masters program.

I discovered that I could have prepared myself better if I had bolstered my communication and mathematics skills with some additional classes at BYU-Hawaii. The ability to communicate effectively and think logically are prerequisites to any career but especially within the business environment. I found out that I could compete in the classroom with some excellent students from all races. I did not need to make apologies for who I was, where I came from, or my training. We have been married for almost 12 years now and have six children. For the past two years I have served as the Elders Quorum President. Professionally I am an economic development consultant. As a Senior Project Director I have conducted projects for clients in South America and Europe plus many of the different States. Currently living in Fort Lauderdale, Florida (Dec. 1986).

13. Larry Chen, Taiwan, B.S.W., BYUH, 1974; presently is the Mission President for the Taiwan Mission.

14. Bienvenido P. Flores, Philippines, B.S., Business Management, BYUH, 1978; presently Director of the CES work in the Philippines and also a Regional Representative for the Church in the Philippines.

15. William Galeai, Samoa, Business Management, BYUH, 1978; presently Budget Manager for the Samoan Senate and also a Stake President in American Samoa.

16. Sione Latu, Tonga, B.A., General Studies, CCH, 1965; private entrepreneur; presently serving as a Regional Representative for the Church in Tonga.

17. Frank Lau, Hong Kong, B.S., Business Management, 1979; M.B.A., Northeast Louisiana; was acting manager for the PBO, Hong Kong, presently on a two-year training assignment in Salt Lake City for the PBO.

18. Howard Niu, Tonga, B.S., Automotive, BYUH, 1978; former Bishop and currently teaching at Liahona High School, Tonga.

To our students, let me say that this year of research has again reaffirmed that you have come to a very special place. You have some of the best faculty in the world. You have some that you may consider somewhat average as you might also find at any other university. But as attested to by earlier graduates, the mixture from different countries here can be and is a very vital and marvelous part of what your education is all about. Make this the best that you can; discover all that you can, take all of the opportunities you can to grow while you are here. To the faculty, don't be so eager to package and produce graduates that are alike and fit in nice little certain sized boxes as compared with the other universities. Certainly there has to be a comparison at times as was done in our accreditation visits. Dr. Warren B. Martin who as head of the team addressed us and said, "you have something unique here. Don't follow the large schools by doing away with your system of standards and of teaching values" (qtd. in Wade). Dr. Martin also stated,

Some schools are turning out educational and social barbarians in some of their graduates because they do not teach them values. Let me tell you why I think you have made a wise choice in coming to BYU-Hawaii. Here they care about you as an individual. Here it is better than most places. You come here from different places but you come together better than other places. Your Church has set constraints, but it is those constraints that make you free. Here in Laie you feature tradition and change. All change must be rooted in tradition if it is to endure. (qtd. in Wade)

However, as faculty we need to do as much as possible to be involved and associating with others, to compare and to further learn about what we are and should be. During the past few years my opportunities to attend and present papers in different countries has been a very valuable experience in meeting and associating with others.

I think as a small and international campus we need to stay ever involved and alert to the different cultures that come here. From these we can gain and also learn much. The increased internationality of our faculty is and will be ever increasingly important. We should strive to have more exchanges with foreign universities to help strengthen our own position and understanding.

For each faculty and staff that has come we have gained: but for those who have come and have stayed for many years we owe a great deal of thanks; for constancy in a growing organization is extremely necessary.

Since the discussion will and should continue as to the shape and size of the box that our graduates should graduate in, let us not forget the admonition from Pres. McKay once again when he said, the students at this school

will develop manhood, character, and make noble men and women. The world needs them. . . . [T]he world needs men who. . . cannot be bought or sold. . . . That is what this school is going to produce. More then that, they will be leaders. . . not only on this island, but everywhere. All the world is hungering for them and. . . best of all the world is recognizing them. (3)

So I come back to my title, "A Correct Leadership Style--An Eternal Principle." Somehow, the ingredients that we mix here seems to be some of the same for each student but for some different; there is an area of individualization that we must recognize and accept, for our students are different; from vastly different backgrounds. Yet when mixed and seasoned together, the end mixture is much better than the individual ingredients left alone could or would have ever been.

Thus we need the David Chens, the Sherman Hans, the Barbara Elkingtons, the Jan Fishers, Swapps, and Garsides, the Jerry Lovelands, and Dale Robertsons, the Daltons and Jack Johnsons, the Funakis and Adren Birds, the Norman Kaluhiokalanis and Chidesters, the Oleoles, Higgses and Gary Smiths.

So where do we go? The mass production of graduates at other schools no matter how prestigious should never become a part of us here. We should never lose the individualization that we can afford to give to some degree our students here as a great asset to their education. Here we have with us today future leaders in business, in profession[s] and in the Church within the next five years. Bishops, Stake Presidency members, Relief Society Presidents, business executives and in 10 years--Regional representatives and top management-level positions being held by some who are here today. Faculty, you need to teach well and prepare them for those assignments. Students, you need to be willing to accept and try each new assignment and challenge to help you get prepared for the continued fulfillment of President McKay's prophecy, "You mark that word, and from this school, I'll tell you, will go men and women whose influence will be felt for good towards the establishment of peace internationally' (3)

Thank-you for giving me this opportunity. I thank you.


1Ed. Note. The earliest appearance of the "charge" issued to prospective David O. McKay lecturers is on the reprint of Wayne L. Allison's lecture in 1971. Bradshaw's minor alterations in the text reflect "politically correct" expectations in gender and indicate current University labels. Back to Top

2At this point an original recording of Pres. McKay speaking at the Church College Dedication was played. Back to Top

3Ed. Note: Sutermeister in the first paragraph of this passage quotes Alfred G. Larke, who in turn quotes John Patton, the president of John Patton Engineering. Back to Top

4Ed. Note. Quotations from this letter and from other letters which Bradshaw includes at this point in his lecture derive from his personal correspondence with various graduates of the University.
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Works Cited

Bennis, Warren. The Unconscious Conspiracy: Why Leaders Can't Lead. New York: AMACON, 1976.

The Bible.

Bradshaw, James R. "The Inter-Relationships Between Management- Style, Motivation and Productivity." Fifth World Productivity Congress. Jakarta, 13-16 April 1986.

The Doctrine and Covenants.

Kimball, Spencer W. "Jesus: the Perfect Leader." Ensign Aug. 1979: 5-7.

Larke, Alfred G. "Human Relations Research: Academic Wool- Gathering or Guide to Increased Productivity?" Dun's Review and Modern Industry 68.1 (July 1956): 42-44.

Law, Reuben D. The Founding and Early Development of the Church College of Hawaii. St. George, UT: Dixie College P, 1972.

McKay, David O. Address. Ground Breaking Service, The Church College of Hawaii, 12 February 1955. [Laie]: [Church College of Hawaii], [1955]; original ts. in Church College of Hawaii History Collection, Archives, Brigham Young University- Hawaii.

Martin, Warren B. "My Experiences." Devotional Address. Brigham Young University-Hawaii, 21 March 1986.

Nibley, Hugh W. "Leadership Versus Management." BYU Today 38.1 (February 1984: 16 - 19, 45 -47.

Orlick, Terry. In Pursuit of Excellence. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, 1980.

Ouchi, William G. Theory Z. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1981.

Penney, J. C. View from the Ninth Decade. New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1960.

Peters, Thomas J. and Robert H. Waterman, Jr. In Search of Excellence: Lessons From America's Best Run Companies. New York: Harper and Row, 1982.

Put on the Strength, O Zion. Salt Lake City: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1984.

Sill, Sterling. Leadership. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1958.

Sutermeister, Robert A. People and Productivity. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976.

Tanner, N. Eldon. "The Message." New Era June 1977: 4-7.

Taylor, John. "The Organization of the Church." Millennial Star. 13.22 (15 November 1851): 335-340.

Wade, Alton L. Address. Inauguration: Speeches. [Laie]: [Brigham Young University-Hawaii], [1988]. N. pag.