1980: Wylie W. Swapp - Mirror Of Faith

1980: Wylie W. Swapp - Mirror Of Faith

W SwappAfter service as a bombardier during World War II, Wylie W. Swapp majored in music, with a minor in art, at Brigham Young University, where he received his B.A. in 1948. He later earned his M.A. at State University of Iowa in 1952. While teaching art history at BYU in Provo, Swapp his wife Lois decided to come to Church College of Hawaii as members of the original faculty in 1955. During a long and distinguished career at CCH and Brigham Young University-Hawaii, Swapp held many posts, including first Head of the Arts Division, Associate Academic Dean, Director of Summer School, and Registrar. When he delivered the eighteenth McKay lecture, he was a professor of art, specializing in art history, as attested by the extraordinary breadth of knowledge encompassed in his remarks. Multifariously gifted, Swapp also instituted the College's famous hukilau, the predecessor of the Polynesian Cultural Center in which he took an early interest. A former high councilor and bishop, Swapp serves also as a temple sealer. Married in the Hawaii Temple, the Swapps have four daughters, Madeline, Shannon, Lorraine, and Olivia.


Twenty-five years ago as a new faculty member in the new Church College of Hawaii, I heard President McKay say the following in his dedicatory address: "There are emotions which cannot be expressed in words" (Dedicatory 1). This thought he voiced on another occasion in a slightly different way when he said, "there are feelings in the human breast which cannot be expressed in any language or words; so we must provide ourselves with other mediums of expression" (Pathways 184).

Feelings of this kind, which cannot be verbalized yet clamor to be expressed, have produced down through the ages, a great wealth of visual communication. Feelings concerning religious beliefs are often so deep and so personal that mere words will not carry the full meaning. As a consequence the world is full of visuals which reflect the deep and abiding faith of the maker.

My intention is to build on the thoughts expressed by Pres. McKay and to show how mankind has made visual representations which mirror their beliefs and that this mirror of their faith, in turn, clarifies and solidifies what we believe.

#1 Through many centuries the majority of Christians had to rely on visual images to learn what they should believe, because they were not able to read the scriptures and because the Church services were in a language few could understand. Therefore, a visual of God often reflected as well as determined their belief. Differences in religious thought changed the character of the visual sermon.

Early Christian leaders, no doubt, in an effort to emphasize the facts of Christ's life and make them more meaningful to simple people, augmented and embellished the scripture stories with inventions of their own. These embellishments, told and retold, were reinforced by paintings and sculpture which in truth often mirrored a faith made of the philosophies of men mingled with scripture.

Images of God

Our scriptures tell us that God created man in his own likeness (Gen. 1: 26). Man, in all ages, has felt the need to create images of God in his own likeness. Perhaps, the most important purpose of art has been to bring God into the presence of man by making a visual of him. The painted or sculptured presence of God can become a focus for worship, and ritual, and teaching.

#2 Man has created visuals that have expressed, from his viewpoint, how God should appear. In all examples God has a general likeness to man. He may appear serene and calm or he may exhibit fierceness or pain and sorrow according to the belief of the maker. Each image provides an example of visualized faith which the believer can use as a base or guide for the conduct of his life.


#3 In July of this past summer I stood on a hillside in Greece within the ancient sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi. This once magnificent establishment, with its sacred oracle pronouncements, guided the activities of individuals and nations for over a thousand years from before 700 B.C. till A.D. 394. The Greek god Apollo sponsored the sanctuary and it was through his power and authority by which the oracle spoke.

Ancient Greeks in trying to make meaningful representations of Apollo had a most difficult problem. Although all knew that Apollo lived in the temple at Delphi nine months out of the year, no one had ever seen him. However, on his temple was inscribed the precepts of Apollo which translated into English say the following:

Curb thy spirit.

Observe the limit.

Hate hybris.

Keep a reverent tongue.

Fear authority.

Bow before the divine.

Glory not in strength.

Keep women under rule. (qtd. in Elsen 39-40)

In addition to this listing there are many other concepts that are summed up in Apollo. He encouraged beauty of every sort--in art, music and poetry as well as the beauty of the human form. He was the protector against evil, the god of purification and prophecy. He sponsored law and order and the intellectual, practical approach. He was also the god of nature and was known as, "keeper of the flocks" (Elsen 40). He was the god of the gymnasium. "He presided over the transition from boyhood to manhood" and was a warlike god who often "carried a silver bow" (Elsen 40). He was also the god of spiritual and physical healing, "capable of purifying the guilty and cleansing sin" (Elsen 40).

Any sculptor trying to interpret all of these attributes into a single human-like form had to rely on great skill but also on a sympathetic group of faithful believers who were willing to read many of those traits into the sculpture.

#4 Although we here today are not a sympathetic audience toward the truth of the godhood of Apollo, we can perhaps see in his likeness some of the concepts evident to believers. The controlled poise and movement of the uplifted hand, illustrate Apollo's supreme physical grace and by implication also intellectual discipline. "This handsome figure, with its athletic and dancer-like grace, retains a suggestion of purity of mind and body" and also perhaps "the faculty of wisdom" which was a part of his glory (Elsen 43).

This visual mirrors their faith by presenting the beauty of Apollo's mind and morality through the medium of a beautiful human body.


#5 To the ancient Hawaiian, a visual of an Apollo-like figure, representing beauty of form and intellect, would carry very little interest and meaning. A reflection of different concepts and values shine from the mirror of their belief. Representations of the god Ku show us a human-like aggressive figure, exhibiting confidence and power. His legs are in a flexed position of perpetual readiness for action. His face displays fierceness, superiority and disrespect. The face of disrespect has its mouth open in a grimace, the corners extend backward and the teeth are bared. He also has flared nostrils and a raised and jutting chin.

The idea of increasing one's own importance by degrading others is known in all cultures, but in Hawaii it becomes an attribute of deity as an example for lesser beings to follow. In Hawaiian tradition war may have been more to degrade the enemy than to kill him.

As further evidence of power, superiority and authority we see the crest which extends up to cover the head which is the seat of mana and is the most sacred part of the body. The crest does not symbolize a cock's comb but according to a lecture given by Dr. Adrienne Kaeppler last April at the Bishop Museum, the notches became an extension of the backbone symbolizing genealogy, with each notch representing a generation.1 Thus genealogy protects the head by giving evidence of superior, illustrious ancestors to augment other evidences of superiority already mentioned.

#6 Is it any wonder, then, that ancient Hawaiian chiefs degraded a conquered enemy by taking his teeth to decorate a food scrap bowl, or carv[ing] the image of a defeated chief and his wife in the servile position of support figures for a large food platter? The mouths turned up and open to serve as a handy container for salt and other seasonings.


#7 In Asia the followers of Buddha felt a belated need to create a visual image that would embody the concepts of his teachings. There were no images of Buddha in a manlike form until approximately 800 years after his death. The faithful followers had been satisfied to represent him by symbols such as his footprint, the tree under which he received enlightenment, the wheel of learning, or an honorific parasol recalling his princely family.

When the Buddha image in human-like form was finally developed it still remained more symbolic than real because it needed to include several of the 32 "mystic signs of his superhuman perfection" (Elsen 44).

The protruding knob on the top of the head--symbolic of wisdom. Elongated earlobes--indicating his royal birth. A spot on his forehead between the eyes which signifies inner vision. The downcast eyes which shut out the physical world (Elsen 44). Seated in a yoga position of peaceful meditation he exhibits one of a series of ritual hand gestures.

#8 The non-realistic body, which can be called a breath-filled form, resembles the idea of a Mickey Mouse balloon you must have seen, which when blown up with air causes the form to fill out without concern for the reasonable, logical attachment of bones and muscles so that there is no body strain caused by the posture.

Finally the sculptor had to impart to this mirror of faith, the Buddha's inward tranquility and ultimate state of serenity, perfect release and deliverance from desire, which Buddha achieved in nirvana and which is the ultimate aim of all Buddhists.


#9 Perhaps we should compare the tranquil serene figure of Buddha with a tortured figure of the crucified Christ. A visual of the crucifixion focuses the attention of faithful Christians on the horrible death of Christ, His sacrifice of Himself to redeem mankind and His r™le as Savior.

Although Christ on the cross has been a favorite representation since the Middle Ages, it has not always been so. There were no visuals of Christ made during the first two centuries after his death.

#10 They first begun to appear in Christian catacombs near Rome. These catacombs, dug in the early part of the 3rd century, were meant as burial places for devout Christians. The walls were plastered and simple pictures could be painted on them. Christ as the good shepherd was the favorite visual then because it was the ideal expression of early Christian belief. People knew the parable of the lost sheep and Christ had been quoted assaying, "feed my sheep--feed my lambs" (John 21: 15, 16). His teachings were to protect and guide His flock through the problems of life (de la Croix and Tansey 249).

#11 When Christianity became acceptable to the Romans the concept of the good shepherd remained--however, their visuals show the influence of paganism on early Christianity. An example with Christ carrying a sheep on His shoulder shows a handsome, well built, beardless young man of action, similar in stance and general appearance to the Greek god Apollo.

There is still in existence a Greek sculpture from which the Christian artist might have obtained his visual concept. Made in 560 B.C. this calf-bearer bringing his calf, as an offering, to Apollo's temple, has both Greek form and Greek meaning, while the good shepherd on the other hand has Greek form but the meaning is entirely Christian--not the same meaning, however, as the crucified Christ visual that was to be so common in later times.

#12 There are many examples in the art of early Christians which depict Christ as an Apollo type--that is, the young, beardless handsome man of action. On the stone sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, a Roman Christian who died in A.D. 359, we see Him depicted thus. This time, however, not as the good shepherd but as the ruler of the universe. "He sits enthroned above a personification of the firmament" (Janson 201). Christ's foot rests on the firmament which is held up by a figure that seems to be the Greek God Atlas whose duty it was to hold up the heavens.

#13 During the five hundreds this handsome, youthful Christ was still the accepted and preferred type. We see Him portrayed in mosaic form in Ravenna cathedral, reaching forth His hands to perform the miracle of the loaves and fishes. Beyond the type of Christ represented here we can see that the artist attached a deep significance to the scene. To him it was not only a strange miracle which had happened a few hundred years before in Palestine. It was a symbol of Christ's abiding power as the Savior. That helps to explain the way in which Christ looks steadfastly at the beholder; it is he whom Christ will feed (de la Croix and Tansey 265).

#14 At one point it became distasteful to Christians to represent Christ in human form at all. Gospel truths were shown entirely with symbolic forms. Here the human figure has been discarded altogether. Peacocks, symbolic of eternity, stand on each side of a diagram of Christ. "khi" and "rho" are the first two letters of the word for Christ in Greek. To make the monogram an even stronger symbol the artist has included the alpha and omega, the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. These represent the words of Christ when he said, "I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending" (Rev. 1: 8). The grapevines become the logical symbol for the blood of Christ. There are three additional symbols of Christ on the lid so that He is represented totally 5 times although we don't see Him even once as a human figure (de la Croix and Tansey 266).

Many Christians loved both the painted and sculptured images of Christ. There were, however, many arguments as to why images should not be made. One side went methodically throughout the Mediterranean region smashing any image they could find, whether it be Christian, Greek or Roman. The purpose was to destroy all idols-- any graven image that man might sinfully worship as god.

The question of the use of visuals in churches proved of immense importance for the whole history of Europe. It became one of the principal issues on which the eastern, Greek-speaking parts of the Christian world refused to accept the leadership of the Pope in Rome, causing a separation, the effects of which are still with us today.

Those in favor of visual images often quoted the words of Pope Gregory the Great who had said, "Painting can do for the illiterate what writing does for those who can read."2

#15 As time passed and visual images again became acceptable, the good shepherd concept of Christ was less favored than it had been in earlier times. The handsome, clean-shaven, young man of action was replaced by a completely different viewpoint.

Christ's appearance changed to become an older, dark, sad-eyed bearded personage. This symbol represents Christ as ruler of the universe, the stern judge, the giver of the law as well as the enforcer of the law. This image is calculated to evoke awe, remorse and fear in the beholder.

There is no way of knowing the details of Christ's actual appearance. No portraits of Him were made during His lifetime and no written description exists by people who saw Him. Any visual of Christ must be accepted as a symbol of religious truth, not as a portrait of the actual man.

Mormon Christ

#16 In the Mormon Church we have our own preferred visuals of Christ. Although we have not had many made by our own members, we have been able to reach out and accept non-member images as our own, when they reflect our concepts. Pictures such as these can be found on the approved list in any meetinghouse library.

#17 Above the entrance to the Tabernacle in Honolulu is a visual of Christ smiling. As far as I know this smiling Christ is unique in the world. It was made in 1936 by Frances Eugene Savage, a non-member who was given the 110th Section of the Doctrine and Covenants to read with directions from Ralph E. Woolley, President of the Oahu Stake, to not make a sad, crying Christ (D&C 110: 3). This joyful optimistic visual does mirror our belief better than the more ominous, sad-eyed man.

#18 Of all the borrowed visuals, it's the Christus by Bertal Thorvaldsen, a Danish sculptor, which has had the greatest impact on us. This sculpture piece, since it has been so impressively displayed in the Visitors Center on the Temple grounds in Salt Lake City, seems to have gained a kind of special status as our official view of Christ.

The Christus represents the resurrected Christ shown in His exalted position in the heavens. He has overcome the crucifixion and death, which has left the imprint of nails in His hands and feet. His side is exposed to show the wound. His face, showing neither sadness or joy is that of an older, bearded, long-haired man. His position, slightly bent forward, looking down, with arms extended out and downward, expresses protective care and concern for mankind as well as compassion, gentleness and love.

This then reflects Christ from our viewpoint, which we show to the world on Temple Square and will soon be showing in the newly remodeled Visitors Center here at the Hawaii Temple.

#19 Many approved Mormon images made by both members and non-members (under direction) seem to be spin-offs from the Christus. They all have minor variations in stance, arm position and background but they are all essentially the same figure reflecting the same meaning. What could be more approved than a visual signed by all the presidents of the Church.


When images were first made 200 years after His death, it was the concept of Christ as the Savior, shown in the form of the Good Shepherd, which was most satisfying. Christ as the miracle worker also became important. At later times we also see Christ as the Ruler of Heaven, the Stern judge, or the Man of Sorrows, the Sufferer. Even with all of these the everlasting favorite through the years has been the Christ Child, the newly born Christ, as seen in the Nativity.

#20 It is natural that visuals of the birth would have been made in endless numbers and with great variety because this is one of the greatest messages of Christianity--that He was born.

The Child is always the center of interest but His picture is by no means the only image present. The most complete Biblical description of Christ's birth is found in the second chapter of Luke (2: 6-20), but representations of the scene have always included much more than is described there. We see here an interesting example of the learning of men mingled with scripture.

Although not mentioned in the New Testament, the ox and the ass are always present . The manger is mentioned three times but this seems hardly enough reason to give the animals a favored position (Luke 2: 7, 12, 16). There is, however, a non-scriptural account which says that Joseph brought along a cow to sell to pay the tax and to pay their keep. This may account for the presence of the ox. Also there is a verse in the Book of Isaiah which says, "The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master's crib; but Israel doth not know, my people doth not consider" (Isa. 1: 3). The early Church writer Origen related this to the Bethlehem manger. He "considered the ox to be the pure beast and the ass the impure" (Schiller 60). Later, prominent Church leaders became more specific. Both Ambrose and Augustine declared the ox to be "the symbol of the chosen Jewish people and the ass a symbol of heathen peoples" (Schiller 60-61). Therefore, when we see the ox and the ass in nativity pictures, they are not meant to be casual animals who happened by chance to be near the manger.

#21 Luke doesn't mention where the birth took place. In our day we commonly picture a sort of farmyard setting. Bernard of Clairvaux may be the one responsible for this popular image. Writing in the l2th century he stressed the "poverty of the stable and manger which housed the Lord on earth" (Schiller 76). His writings influenced Francis of Assisi, 50 years later, who established a pattern of bringing in an ox and ass and setting up a barnyard stable scene with manger and hay (Schiller 76). Notwithstanding the popularity of the stable in our day the event more likely took place in a cave. From the 2nd century onward the cave was mentioned in nativity legends and in writings by doctors of the Church. This also reflects the local situation. Cellars as stables in Bethlehem are still hewn out of rock under the houses, and there are caves and grottos which provide shelters. The main source of the cave idea comes from the Protoevangelium of James which enjoyed wide usage among Church scholars during the 5th and 6th centuries.3 This writing secured "a regular place in visual representations for the cave of the Nativity" (Schiller 63). This work in describing the journey to Bethlehem says, "And Joseph found there a cave, led Mary into it, told his son to stay with her and went out to look for a Hebrew midwife" (qtd. in Schiller 63).

The Pseudo Matthew says of the event: "When Mary entered the cave it began to shine, as if the sun were there" (qtd. in Schiller 63).4

The cave tie-in with the nativity is a natural one because of other legends of caves in religious writings. For example, the

Ethiopian Book of Adam and Eve states that Eve bore her first son in a cave in the Mountain of Paradise. The cave was created when Satan was determined to slay the First Parents with a great rock, but the Lord commanded the rock to become a tent-shaped cave to protect them. (Schiller 63)5

"Reference can also be made in this connexion to the cave of Adam's burial on the hill [called] Golgotha, above which the crucifixion" story says "the cross of Christ was set up" (Schiller 63).

#22 The Protoevangelium of James goes on to say that Joseph found a midwife and took her back to the cave where she helped with the birth and with the Child afterwards whom she recognized as the Messiah. The presence of the midwife was not acceptable to many Church leaders even though the Evangelium of Pseudo Matthew said her name was Zelami and the Golden Legend said her name was Zebel but we can see from many sacred artworks the concept was accepted and pictured on many occasions, usually with the midwife giving the child a bath (Schiller 64).6


#23 Joseph is usually pictured as being unimportant to the event. We often see him asleep, looking the other way or doing some menial task such as washing or carrying. It is as if he were physically present but sort of mentally absent. The observer must realize that he is not the father of the Child.

Mary, on the other hand, has always had a prominent place in the scene. Sometimes she is shown in large size as if she were the most important of all. In the early Church there were non-scriptural writings which added to the story and gave people more words and additional situations on which to build their visualizations.

#24 The Protoevangelum of James tells the following story:

Having decided to put a new curtain in the Temple, the Jewish priests summoned thither eight maidens of the house of David and divided the wool between them. Mary was given purple and scarlet wool to spin which she took to the home of Joseph, under whose guardianship she had been placed in her twelfth year. (Schiller 34)

One day as she was spinning the angel appeared to her (Schiller 34).

Thus in the four, five and six hundreds, Mary is shown as being interrupted at her spinning.

#25 "From the eleventh century onward," however, "the spindle was abandoned and. . . replaced by [a] book," because of a widely read Carolingian poem of the period which "describes Mary reading the Psalter at the arrival of the angel" (Schiller 42). Another work called Meditations, written a hundred years later by a Franciscan monk, records that "Mary was reading the Book of Isaiah when the angel appeared. This is why the book in Mary's hand is sometimes open to Isaiah 7: 14" (Schiller 42), which says, "Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel."7 Mary is often represented with her head inclined and to one side (Schiller 42). This comes from Psalms 45:10 where it says, "Hearken, O daughter, and consider, and incline thine ear."

Mary is often shown as a shy, humble maid, seated on a low stool, but at other times she might be shown as the Queen of Heaven on a throne-like chair.

#26 The dove is recognized by all of us as a symbol of the Holy Ghost. The dove descends upon Mary either from a cloud, the hand of God or from a figure of God. Sometimes the Child is visible within the outline of the body of Mary, or he may be seen sliding down a ray of light.


#27 In Mormonism we make a lot out of the idea of witnesses. An event which has witnesses can be accepted as a truth. For this reason the shepherds are important in a nativity picture. They are the witnesses. They saw Mary and Joseph--and the Baby lying in a manger. Shepherds are generally poor, humble people and these shepherds represent the poor people of the world. They are usually shown as poor, rustic, and humble, sometimes with patched clothes. The popularity of adoration of the shepherds scenes entered the artistic world under the influence of Francis of Assisi. He preached that the poor people of the world "were the privileged ones, for it was" to them in the form of shepherds "to whom the glad tidings were announced," and it was they who first saw the Child (Schiller 87).


#28 In the beginning the wise men were a somewhat troublesome element in visuals. The Bible doesn't say how many there were but since three gifts were mentioned, it has been assumed by most that there were three. Early Magi scenes vary the number from two, to four, to six.

Mormon artist Minerva Teitchert reflects the traditional pattern when she painted these three Magi mounted on camels hurrying to find the Christ child.

#29 There are other Mormon-made visuals of Bible stories which reflect more specific Mormon concepts of Bible happenings. For example, Arnold Friberg's painting of Adam and Eve in the L. A. Temple, as well as David Smith's sculpture, both show Adam and Eve modestly dressed rather than nude in the traditional way. The sculpture indicates the additional Mormon viewpoint of having Adam and Eve kneeling, facing each other across an altar. A. B. Wright represents a Mormon idea when he painted, in the Alberta Temple, a group scene with Adam offering sacrifice as an example for his many children gathered around (Moses 5: 2-12).

#30 Exclusively Mormon concepts can best be mirrored through visuals with unique specific Mormon meaning. No Church member will need to read the title or receive additional information to understand the content of a picture showing the appearance of heavenly beings. An example is the Angel Moroni delivering the plates. The iconography seems to be set. Joseph is kneeling on the ground. The angel in a long white robe, hovering just off the ground, is a source of light. The plates are in evidence, the setting is outside.

#31 We do not picture angels with wings nor do we care to use halos to designate heavenly beings, but in visuals of Joseph and Oliver receiving the priesthood, there is no doubt as to which are heavenly and which are earthly figures. It seems to be important to us that we picturize the historical scene as if we were witnesses to the real event (Smith 39-42). The visual tells us men were there, the heavenly beings were there, and it really happened.

#32 All Mormon visuals depicting heavenly beings use the device of the white robe, the shining light and the ability to defy gravity. All of these come from Joseph Smith who wrote, "I saw a pillar of light exactly over my head above the brightness of the sun. . . . When the light rested upon me I saw two Personages, whose brightness and glory defy all description, standing above me in the air" (JS-H 1: 16-17).

#33 People and events described in the Book of Mormon have been pictured by Mormon artist Minerva Teitchert. Although they are visuals of unique Mormon subjects, and are beautiful paintings, they do not necessarily become a mirror of faith until the title is known. As soon as we know the title we recognize them as old friends: 1. Nephi Building a Ship; 2. Alma Baptizing in the Waters of Mormon; 3. A Ship of Hagoth; 4. Abinadi before King Noah.

#34 One Mormon artist named Arnold Friberg has illustrated some Book of Mormon happenings in such a powerful way they may have established a pattern all others will follow. His pictures seem to have achieved official status. They appear in various Church publications, including the blue cover edition of the Book of Mormon and have now pretty much determined the way we picture these events. They now mirror our faith while at the same time they teach us what to believe.

#35 Church history pictures mirror our faith but usually have to be accompanied by a title. Examples are Richard Murray's Wilford Woodruff Prepares for Baptism, Dale Kilbaum's, Organization of the Relief Society, C. C. A. Christensen's Emigration of the Saints. Building of the Nauvoo Temple by Guy C. Smith is easier to identify by a discerning Church member because we can recognize the architecture of the building shown.

#36 Mormon architecture is perhaps the strongest mirror of our faith. The Salt Lake Temple more than any other single object says "Mormon" to both member and non-member alike. The Church Office Building next to it is a Mormon building also but its appearance has no particular Mormon meaning. The architecture of other temples reflect our belief in certain spiritual truths, partly because we recognize them for the activities they enclose and partly because of a style, a particular appearance that says--"Temple."

#37 Interior details which reflect function are prime examples. Temple baptismal fonts are like nothing else in this world and become a unique mirror of faith.

#38 Temple sealing rooms and visuals of other sacred activities reflect our faith so intimately that we may feel a little uneasy at having them pictured. A couple who is married in the temple is sealed together for eternity with the possibility of eternal increase. This represents the very highest goal a member can reach for. Visuals of endowment and sealing rooms reflect our knowledge of man's great potential and finally the possible godhood of man.


When Pres. McKay voiced his thought that we have feelings which cannot be expressed in words, he would have, I am sure, included the visual arts as one of the alternate methods of expression. In this presentation I have attempted to show examples and express the viewpoint that down through the ages into our own time and into our own religion, man has and is expressing deep-felt emotions through visuals which truly become his mirror of faith, and I say these things in the name of Jesus Christ. Amen.


 #1A. Blake, William. The Ancient of Days. 1794. British Museum, London.
B. Michelangelo. The Creation of Man. Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome.
C. Christ in majesty above front portal. Chartres Cathedral, Chartres.
D. Michelangelo. God Creates Earth. Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome.
 #2A. Apollo from the Temple of Zeus, west pediment. Olympia, Greece.
B. Standing Buddha, No Wei Dynasty. Okuza Museum, Tokyo.
C. Hawaii war god Ku. Bishop Museum, Honolulu.
D. Detail of crucified Christ, 12th century.
 #3A. Full view of Apollo, 5th century, Greece.
B. Apollo figure, late 4th century, Greece.
C. Head of Apollo, Roman Copy. Metropolitan Museum, New York. D. Head of Apollo, 4th Century Bronze. British Museum, London.
 #4A. Apollo Belvedere, Roman Copy. Vatican Museum, Rome.
B. Apollo Belvedere, Roman Copy. Vatican Museum, Rome.
C. Apollo Belvedere, Roman Copy. Vatican Museum, Rome.
D. Apollo Belvedere, Roman Copy. Vatican Museum, Rome.
 #5A. Hawaiian war god Ku. Bishop Museum, Honolulu.
B. Feather image of Ku. Bishop Museum, Honolulu.
C. Hawaiian staff images (two). Bishop Museum, Honolulu.
D. Crested wood image. Bishop Museum, Honolulu.
 #6A. Bowl with human teeth, Hawaiian. Bishop Museum, Honolulu.
B. Bowl with human teeth, property of Kamehameha. Bishop Museum, Honolulu.
C. Meat dish with support figures. Bishop Museum, Honolulu.
D. Detail of support figure, mouth open. Bishop Museum, Honolulu.
 #7A. Buddha preaching first sermon, Gupta period, 5th Century, India.
B. Seated Buddha, Gupta period, 5th century, India.
C. Amida Buddha with Apsaras. Gifu, Japan.
D. Seated Buddha from Mathura. National Museum of India, New Delhi.
 #8A. Buddha preaching first sermon, Gupta period, 5th century, India (same as #7A).
B. Buddha seated on lotus throne. Ueno Museum, Japan.
C. Seated Buddha. Kamakura, Japan.
D. Seated Buddha. Kamakura, Japan.
 #9A. Grunawald. Crucifixion.
B. Rubens, Peter Paul. Crucifixion.
C. Crucifixion, Gothic.
D. Crucifixion with blood spelling, Gothic.
 #10A. Good Shepherd. Catacomb of Priscilla.
B. Good Shepherd. Catacomb of Callixtus.
C. Good Shepherd. Catacomb of Callixtus, near tomb of Cornelius.
D. Good Shepherd. Catacomb of St. Pietro and Marcellino (ceiling).
 #11A. Good Shepherd sculpture. Lateran Museum, Rome.
B. Greek calf bearer (Rhonbos). 560 B.C. Acropolis Museum, Athens.
 #12A. Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus. 359. St. Peter's Crypt, Rome.
B. Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, detail of upper center panel.
 #13A. Miracle of the loaves and fishes, mosaic, 504. Ravenna.
 #14A. Sarcophagus of Archbishop Theodore, 7th century. San Apollinair in Classe, Ravenna.
B. Sarcophagus of Theodore (repeat of #14A).
C. Mosaic symbol of Christ. Ravenna.
D. Monogram cross, 5th Century. Monastery of Aquilaia.
 #15A. Christ Pantocrator, 7th century. Cefalu Cathedral.
B. Christ Pantocrator, l2th century. Daphne Monastery, Athens.
C. Christ in Madaria, l2th century.
D. Christ saving man, l2th century. Daphne Monastery, Athens.
 #16A. LDS approved Christ, Meetinghouse Library List.
B. LDS approved Christ, Meetinghouse LIbrary List.
C. LDS approved Christ, Meetinghouse LIbrary List.
D. LDS approved Christ, Meetinghouse LIbrary List.
 #17A. Smiling Christ mosaic. Honolulu Tabernacle.
B. Smiling Christ mosaic. Honolulu Tabernacle.
C. Smiling Christ mosaic. Honolulu Tabernacle.
D. Smiling Christ mosaic. Honolulu Tabernacle.
 #18A. Thorvaldsen, Bertal. Christus, copy. Temple Square, Salt Lake City.
B. Christus, detail of above.
C. Christus.
D. Christus.
 #19A. Christ from Melchizedek Priesthood manual cover. 1979-1980.
B. Resurrected Christ.
C. Resurrected Christ.
D. Christ Appears to Nephites.
 #20A. Grien, Hans. Nativity. Alte Pinakothek, Munich.
B. Nativity, Northern Renaissance.
C. Master of Flamalle. Nativity. Museum of Fine Arts, Dijon.
D. Nativity, 12th century, France.
 #21A. Giorgione. The Adoration of the Shepherds. c. 1510.
B. Botticelli, Sandro. Nativity.
C. Lippi, Fra Lippo. Nativity, detail.
D. Nativity in Cave, Byzantine Painting Mystra.
 #22A. Nativity of Virgin Mary, 11th century. Daphne Monastery, Athens.
B. Nativity with midwife, mosaic. 1143. Palatine Chapel, Palermo.
C. Nativity with midwife, manuscript illumination. Constantinople.
D. Nativity with midwife, ivory. c. 545. Maximian's Throne, Istanbul.
 #23A. Botticelli, Sandro. Mystic Nativity, detail.
B. Nativity in Cave
C. Dürer, Albrecht. Nativity, engraving.
D. Schongauer, Martin. Nativity. Alte Pinakothek, Munich.
 #24A. Annunciation, Virgin spinning, mosaic. Ravenna.
B. Annunciation, textile. c. 800. Musio Sacro, Vatican, Rome.
C. Mary spinning. Flanders.
D. Annunciation with spindle, Byzantine painting.
 #25A. Wity, Kanrod. Annunciation. National Museum, Nuremberg.
B. Martini, Simone. Annunciation, detail. Uffizi Gallery, Florence.
C. Annunciation, detail of Maestra alterpiece.
D. Van Eyke, Jan. Annunciation. Flanders.
 #26A. Van der Gose, Hugo. Annunciation, detail.
B. Van Eyke, Jan. Annunciation. National Gallery, Washington, D. C.
C. Annunciation panel, Grunawald Eisenheim alterpiece.
D. Master of Flamalle. Annunciation.
 #27A. Giorgione. Adoration of the Shepherds.
B. Giorgione. Adoration of the Shepherds, detail.
C. Van der Gose, Hugo. Adoration of the Shepherds, detail.
D. Ghirlandaio, Domenico. Adoration of the Shepherds.
 #28A. Teichert, Minerva. Wise Men.
 #29A. Friberg, Arnold. Adam and Eve. Los Angeles Temple, Los Angeles.
B. Smith, David. Adam and Eve, sculpture.
C. Wright, A. B. Adam Offering Sacrifice. Alberta Temple, Cardston, Canada.
 #30A. Riley, Kenneth. Moroni Delivering the Plates. 1968.
B. Moroni Delivering the Plates, contemporary.
C. Moroni Delivering the Plates, contemporary.
D. Moroni Shows Plates to Joseph Smith, contemporary.
 #31A. Joseph Smith Receiving Priesthood. Temple Square, Salt Lake City.
B. Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery Receiving Priesthood, contemporary.
C. Wright, A. B. Restoration of Aaronic Priesthood. Alberta Temple, Cardston, Canada.
D. Fairbanks, Avard. Restoration of Aaronic Priesthood, Sculpture.
 #32A. Hemminger, Ted. First Vision.
B. First Vision.
C. Friberg, Arnold. Christ Appears to Nephites.
D. Moroni Appears to Joseph Smith.
 #33A. Teichert, Minerva. Nephi Building a Ship.
B. Teichert, Minerva. Alma Baptizing in the Waters of Mormon. C. Teichert, Minerva. Ship of Hagoth.
D. Teichert, Minerva. Abinadi before King Noah.
 #34A. Friberg, Arnold. Lehi Traveling.
B. Friberg, Arnold. Samuel on the City Wall.
C. Friberg, Arnold. Mormon and Moroni.
D. Friberg, Arnold. Nephi Controls Brothers.
 #35A. Murray, Richard. Wilford Woodruff Prepares for Baptism. B. Kilbaum, Dale. Organization of the Relief Society. 1971. C. Christensen, C. C. A. Immigration of the Saints. 1878.
D. Smith, Gary E. Building of Nauvoo Temple. 1975.
 #36A. Salt Lake Temple and Church Office Building.
B. Logan Temple. Logan, Utah.
C. London Temple.
D. Hawaii Temple. Honolulu.
 #37A. Baptismal Font, Albert Temple. Cardston, Canada.
B. Baptismal Font, Idaho Falls Temple.
C. Baptismal Font, Provo Temple.
D. Baptismal Font, Logan Temple. Logan, Utah.
 #38A. Sealing Room, Logan Temple. Logan, Utah.
B. Endowment Room, Salt Lake City Temple.
C. Sealing Room, Manti Temple. Manti, Utah.
D. World Room, Manti Temple. Manti, Utah.


1Ed. Note. While no records at the Bishop Museum in Honolulu note the exact date of Kaeppler's lecture in early April, 1979, the lecture itself, entitled, "Eleven Gods Assembled," later appeared as Eleven Gods Assembled: An Exhibition of Hawaiian Wooden Images, April 6-June 10, 1979 (1979) as Special Publication No. 21 of the Bishop Museum. Back to Top

2Ed. Note. Pope Gregory I's famous epigram has been variously translated. A more narrow rendering is "'What scripture is to the educated, images are to the ignorant, who see through them what they must accept; they read in them what they cannot read in books'" (Honour and Fleming 250). Back to Top

3Ed. Note. Written in Greek during the second century, the Protoevangelium of James, also known as the History of James Concerning the Birth of Mary, received its traditional title (i.e., "First Gospel") from Postel who published it in its initial Latin translation in 1522; largely a record of Jesus' parents, especially Mary, the work consists of twenty-five chapters (Bromiley 1: 182). Back to Top

4Ed. Note. Pseudo-Matthew, composed in Latin during the early Middle Ages, treats not only Jesus' birth, based on the account in the Protoevangelium of James, and his childhood, derived from the Infancy Gospel of Thomas, but also the flight of the Holy Family to Egypt (Bromiley 1: 183). Back to Top

5Ed. Note. The Ethiopian Book of Adam and Eve to which Schiller refers several times seems not to have survived in a complete form in apocryphal literature. A so-called Gospel of Eve from the second century exonerates Eve from her sin in the Garden of Eden because through it she discovered the "food of knowledge," as revealed by Satan in the form of a serpent (Bromiley 1: 185; 2: 205). Back to Top

6Ed. Note. An expansion of apocryphal gospels, the Golden Legend (Legend Aurea) became enormously popular during the High Middle Ages (Bromiley 1: 182). Compiled in the late thirteenth century by Jacobus de Voragine (d. 1298), Archbishop of Genoa, it represents a loose collection of legends relating to Jesus' parentage, birth, infancy, ministry, and passion (Schiller 58). Back to Top

7Ed. Note. Meditations was written during the High Middle Ages, near the end of the thirteenth century. Now attributed to Johannes de Caulibus, it was originally considered the work of Bonaventura; traditionally, Pseudo-Bonaventura appears as its author (Schiller 10, n. 8). Back to Top

Works Cited

The Bible.

Book of Adam and Eve.

The Book of Mormon.

Bromiley, Geoffrey W. et al. The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. 4 vols. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1979. Vols. 1 and 2.

de Caulibus, Johannes. Meditations on the Life of Christ: An Illustrated Manuscript of the Fourteenth Century. Ed. I. Ragusa and R. B. Green. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1961.

de la Croix, Horst and Richard G. Tansey. Gardner's Art Through the Ages. 6th. ed. San Francisco: Harcourt, Brace, 1975.

de Voragine, Jacobus. The Golden Legend. Trans. and adpt. Granger Ryan and Helmut Ripperger. 2 vols. Salem, NH: Ayer, n. d.

Elsen, Albert E. Purpose of Art. San Francisco: Holt, Rinehart, 1967.

Gospel of Eve.

Honour, Hugh and John Fleming. The Visual Arts: A History. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1982.

Infancy Gospel of Thomas.

Janson, H. W. History of Art. New York: Abrams, 1975.

Kaeppler, Adrienne L. Eleven Gods Assembled: An Exhibition of Hawaiian Wooden Images, April 6-June 10, 1979. Honolulu: Bishop Museum P, 1979.

McKay, David O. Dedicatory Prayer. [Laie]: [Church College of Hawaii], [1958]; printed from the original ts. in Church College of Hawaii History Collection, Archives, Brigham Young University-Hawaii.

---. Pathways to Happiness. Comp. Llewelyn R. McKay. Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1957.

The Pearl of Great Price.

Protoevangelium of James.

Pseudo Matthew.

Schiller, Gertrud. Iconography of Christian Art. 2 vols. Greenwich, CN: New York Graphic Society, 1971. Vol. 1.

Smith, Joseph. History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Ed. B. H. Roberts. 7 vols. 2nd. ed. rev. Salt Lake City: Deseret, 1932-1951. Vol. 1.

Other Works Consulted

Batterberry, Michael. Art of the Middle Ages. New York: McGraw- Hill, 1972.

Buechner, Frederick. The Faces of Jesus. New York: Riverwood Publishers, 1974.

Clark, Kenneth M. Civilization: A Personal View. London: Harper and Row, 1969.

Didron, Adolphe N. Christian Iconography: The History of Christian Art in the Middle Ages. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing, 1965.

Gombrich, Ernst H., Jr. The Story of Art, l2th. ed. New York: Phaidon, 1972.

Grabar, André. The Golden Age of Justinian from the Death of Theodosius to the Rise of Islam. New York: Odyssey P, 1967. Great Museums of the World. New York: Newsweek, 1967.

Hanfmann, George M. A. Classical Sculpture. Greenwich, CN: New York Graphic Society, 1967.

Lowrie, Walter. Art in the Early Church. New York: Pantheon Books, 1947.

Lowry, Bates. The Visual Experience: An Introduction to Art. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1961.

Mather, Frank J. Western European Painting of the Renaissance. New York: Tudor Publishing, 1948.

Morey, Charles Rufus. Medieval Art. New York: Norton, 1942.

Newton, Eric and William Neil. 2000 Years of Christian Art. New York: Harper and Row, 1966.

Rice, David T. The Art of Byzantium. New York: Abrams, 1959.

Robb, David M. and J. J. Garrison. Art in the Western World. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1942.

Ruskin, Ariane. Greek and Roman Art. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1968.